Language and Education: Vol. Language revitalization and language pedagogy: new teaching and learning strategies. Much of those who are in need of language have already had historical traumas passed down to us. 2007. The term “revitalization” refers to strengthening a language by bringing it to a new generation of language learners. A child watches a Color Guard Veteran’s Pow Wow at the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. There are many paths language revitalization can take, but they are not mutually exclusive. In my view, indigenous language revitalization is part of a movement for spiritual renewal and healing that is badly needed both among many indigenous communities and in the world as a whole. For more than a century the Lakota language … ... Mayan language revitalization, hip hop, and ethnic identity in Guatemala. It introduces all the major topics (such as revitalization models, assessment, literacy) and contains many examples, including four case studies. Both give excellent overviews of the field, covering both the theoretical and the practical and containing many examples. iv. View all Google Scholar citations In The Cambridge handbook of endangered languages. A very practical chapter, “Creating a Language Program,” concludes the book. and The internalized oppression that comes from language injustice leads us to harm one another. This volume will cover topics, case studies and regional studies on language revitalization world-wide. and A central aspect of language revitalization is the creation of new speakers. Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on Language-in-education policies and Indigenous language revitalization efforts in Canada: Considerations for non-dominant language education in the Global South. 1. Published online by Cambridge University Press:  The LSA has been a long-time advocate for federal programs that support Native American language preservation and revitalization efforts, including: The Ester Martinez Native American Languages Preservation Act ; Victory! In response to the global crisis and to a grassroots movement, the discipline of linguistics is shifting from treating languages as an object of study to engaging in efforts to save languages. In fact, some major funders of language revitalization projects will not entertain proposals outside of those goals. I have come to the 500 Words | 2 Pages. A more technical, comprehensive overview geared primarily at linguists can be found in chapter 11 of Tsunoda 2005. They have experienced evolution, whether through contact and change or through internal developments, and they are subject to decline. This article will be of most immediate use—and inspiration—to language activists. Taking an ecological approach, Romaine 2007 argues that the best way to save a language is to protect the community in which the language is spoken. The federal government has a responsibility to provide sufficient funds for Aboriginal-language revitalization and preservation. Close this message to accept cookies or find out how to manage your cookie settings. Various avenues for language revitalization, a proactive approach to the continued use of a particular language, are then described (see Hinton & Hale, 2001). Language revitalization and the normalization of Basque: a study of teacher perceptions and expectations in the Basque Country. For example, in 2014, the Noongar people numbered more than 40,000 but with less than 250 fluent speakers of Noongar the language is considered endangered . March 2016 Pages 144-153 Download PDF. "metrics": true, The green book of language revitalization in practice. This paper introduces our special issue about ideologies in sign language vitality and revitalization and discusses ideologies related to the vitality of sign languages. In an attempt to assimilate Indigenous people into Canadian society, the Indian Act and residential schools forced Indigenous people to abandon their native languages. Rusty Barrett. The Hawaiian model of language revitalization: Problems of extension to mainland native America January 2012 International Journal of the Sociology of Language 2012(218) 2011. Aboriginal language rights are reinforced by the Treaties. It is comprehensive and very well referenced. "languageSwitch": true This includes (a) assessing the situation of individual languages, (b) understanding the complex causes of language decline and death, (c) engaging in public and political advocacy, (d) documenting languages, and, most important, (e) working directly with members of communities whose languages are threatened, supporting their efforts to save or revive these languages. and Feature Flags: { 25, ‘Applied linguist needed’: cross-disciplinary networking for revitalization and education in endangered language contexts, pp. FIRE: Forum for international research in education. The topic of language revitalization is by now also included in many handbooks and other reference works in linguistics, education/language teaching, bilingualism, ethnicity, and so on. This data will be updated every 24 hours. 2009, Issue. this page. iii. Linguists encounter more and more speakers and communities who are struggling for the survival their languages. Adapted from The Green Book of Language Revitalization in Practice, edited by Leanne Hinton and Ken Hale (San Diego: Academic Press, 2001).. Brief History. Language extinction has increased rapidly in the last one hundred years, and occurs now at a staggering rate. Austin, Peter K., and Julia Sallabank, eds. Like all languages, the Eskaleut languages have a history. 2005. A thorough overview from the perspective of sociolinguistics and language planning. "comments": true, San Diego, CA: Academic Press. This revitalization of indigenous languages will not come easily. This past April, Kekoa earned his doctorate in indigenous language and culture revitalization from the University of Hawaii at Hilo. Although language revitalization requires commitment from the community, it also requires government support, in both policy and funding. de Reuse, Willem J. Many Indigenous languages in Canada are endangered because of a history of restrictive colonial policies that prohibited the speaking of these mother tongues. Examples of funded programs include developing materials to increase language use and proficiency, and promoting traditional approaches to learning such as language … Also useful is Baker 2011, a chapter in a textbook on bilingualism and aimed primarily at educators and decision makers. "metricsAbstractViews": false, Marie’s Dictionary tells the story of Marie Wilcox, a Native American woman who is the last fluent speaker of Wukchumni. Gordon, Louise 2001. "clr": false, Long considered a “dead” language — a language not used in daily speaking — Hebrew continued to survive as a written language for study from 2nd century CE until approximately the 1900s. For more information or to contact an Oxford Sales Representative click here. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters. 20 No. The present volume examines a wide range of issues that concern language endangerment andlanguage revitalization. Hopefully to be published in 2017. The theoretical understanding of language endangerment, which is fundamental to successful revitalization, is equally interdisciplinary. A good introduction to language endangerment and revitalization from an ecological perspective. "isLogged": "0", 307-318. Revitalization of endangered languages is a global issue. Please subscribe or login. Intended for the educator, this section provides information about the story as well as an overview of language loss and Indigenous language revitalization efforts. 3 (2018): Special Issue: Equity and Digital Literacies: Access, Ethics, and Engagements / Articles Digital Realities of Indigenous Language Revitalization: A Look at Hawaiian Language Technology in the Modern World Among other things, it is shown that languages … Indigenous Language Revitalization: Encouragement, Guidance & Lessons Learned by Jon Allan Reyhner; Louise Lockard Call Number: P 119.315 I45 2009 ISBN: 9780967055442 2007. v. Project discussions included options for language planning, training activities, and educational program and materials development that would enhance language survival. International Journal of the Sociology of Language… Saving languages: An introduction to language revitalization. Article preview. Language revitalization and language pedagogy: new teaching and learning strategies. 198, (2015). Romaine 2007 is an overview of current thinking on language revitalization. for this article. Language Justice Can Heal Our Tongues, Our Bodies. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511975981E-mail Citation ». Expand or collapse the "in this article" section, Literacy, Orthography, and Standardization, The Problem and Opportunity of Formal Education, Expand or collapse the "related articles" section, Expand or collapse the "forthcoming articles" section, Language Ideologies and Language Attitudes. van Volkinburg, Heather Article. Schreyer, Christine Kelly-Holmes, Helen Mainstream linguistic training is only a partial preparation; knowledge of sociolinguistics, first and second language acquisition, language teaching (and education more generally), and community development are also essential. Rieder, Maria 2019. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190503000187. Revitalization in a scattered language community: problems and methods from the perspective of Mutsun language revitalization. To date no textbooks are dedicated to language revitalization. For more than a century the Lakota language … It is estimated that 50 percent to 90 percent of the world’s six thousand to seven thousand languages will no longer be spoken by the end of this century. Every 14 days, a language becomes extinct. 25, ‘Applied linguist needed’: cross-disciplinary networking for revitalization and education in endangered language contexts, pp. (Photo: Hamner_Fotos) New programs to teach and restore the lost language and cultural heritage of the Lakota Sioux offers hope for the children who live on reservations where dire poverty, suicide, unemployment and substance abuse have become a way of life. These examples reveal that language revitalization is not only an applied field, but also a very interdisciplinary one. Hinton, Leanne. In Eller’s book of Cultural Anthropology, he notes that Anthony Wallace says that Revitalization Movements “are conscious, deliberate, and organized efforts on the part of some member(s) of a society to create a new better, and more satisfying culture” (Eller). And languages that have undergone renewal of their use as community languages are as real and authentic as any language. At the same time, dedicated efforts are being made to document endangered languages, to maintain them, and even to revive once-extinct languages. Revitalization efforts take a variety of forms; the best known are perhaps the language nests pioneered in New Zealand and Hawaii, various forms of bilingual education (in Europe and elsewhere), and political movements, such as the modern revival of Hebrew or Basque and the language legislation of Quebec, Canada. 2007. *Note: the sources that follow are organized based on regional coverage of American Indian tribes rather than alphabetically. Nguyễn, Trần Thủy Tiên Chelliah, Shobhana L. Many publications are devoted to the fundamental task of increasing the knowledge base by reporting on revitalization projects on specific languages, often in specific communities. Hinton, Leanne, and Kenneth Hale, eds. Romaine, Suzanne. "lang": "en" In surveys of about 245 language revitalization programs that Dr. Báez, director of the university’s Language Revitalization Lab, conducted in 2016 … 307-318. Marie’s Dictionary tells the story of Marie Wilcox, a Native American woman who is the last fluent speaker of Wukchumni. Press. 2010. Cooper, Audrey C. In almost every part of the world, minority languages are threatened with extinction. Language health is one indicator of the health of a culture, and language revitalization is only one part of a more comprehensive and systemic response to cultural destabilization that must include not only cultural revitalization, 20) Berge, A (2010) Revitalisation et Documentation de la Langue Chez les Aléoutes en Alaska. If enough documentation can be created before a language goes extinct, a language can be revitalized. Revitalization of endangered languages. Conversations with Experts in Multilingualism Those involved can include parties such as linguists, cultural or community groups, or governments. A good number of short overviews are now available on the topic of language revitalization, all of them accessible to a nonlinguistic audience. Current Issues in Language Planning: Vol. Language revitalization should be a collaborative effort that involves dedication by First Nations community members. Since language revitalization is an emerging field, its theoretical foundations as well as its models of practice are still developing. Language revitalization is widely recognized as an essential aspect of strengthening Native nations across Turtle Island. You could not be signed in, please check and try again. A major section of this edited volume is devoted to the topic of “responses” to language endangerment. 2009. The ALI funds Indigenous organizations interested in creating programs and services around language revitalization. Language revitalization is the rescue of a "dying" language. As the ILR body of literature has developed, it has become clear that this work does not fit neatly into any single academic discipline. "peerReview": true, Baker, Colin. View project. Therefore, the need for learning Indigenous languages as “additional” languages is a relatively new societal phenomenon and Indigenous language revitalization (ILR) an emerging academic field of study. (2011). Query parameters: { In language revitalization in the U.S., goals are often geared towards "producing speakers," where fluency in the Indigenous language is a major aim. And that’s why healing is a crucial part of language justice. The preservation, revitalization, and strengthening of Aboriginal languages and cultures are best managed by Aboriginal people and communities. One path is for families to learn and transmit the endangered language at home. "crossMark": true, Pietikäinen, Sari * Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 17th December 2020. Revitalization in a scattered language community: problems and methods from the perspective of Mutsun language revitalization. Abstract and Keywords. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Below is a list of articles that analyze American Indian language revitalization efforts in the form of immersion programs, language revitalization models, learning via digital formats, and literacy practices. Culture and Language Revitalization for Native American Students While most articles, or entries (e.g., reports, books, journal articles), describe culture- and language-revitalization efforts with specific populations in a few geographic locations, there are persistent indications across the literature that some key practices, such as Render date: 2020-12-17T08:59:00.660Z Intended for the educator, this section provides information about the story as well as an overview of language loss and Indigenous language revitalization efforts. This bill was passed in the US House of Representatives on December 9th and was signed by President Trump on December 20, 2019. Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. Traditionally, young children who could pick up languages easily were to become caretakers of many languages. To… 16, Multilingual education: language ideologies and attitudes, pp. The articles in this section deal with language revitalization in general and several highly relevant subtopics, such as speakers and communities, orthography development, and language policy. and 5th ed. Endangered languages: Planning and revitalization. For some, there are more immediate matters like health care and housing to worry about while for others, language is central to healing our communities. New York: Mouton de Gruyter. A very systematic treatment of language revitalization written for lay and academic readers. Language revitalization is a fairly recent subfield of linguistics that is concerned with halting and reversing the extinction of languages. Worldwide, speakers of endangered languages are increasingly spearheading remarkable efforts with technology, education, community organization, and other strategies. Residential school students caught speaking … "hasAccess": "0", ii. For example, Hinton 2011 is just one of several chapters in Austin and Sallabank 2011 in which responses to language endangerment are discussed. So, how important is revitalization? Feature Flags last update: Thu Dec 17 2020 07:59:37 GMT+0000 (Coordinated Universal Time) Hebrew is a remarkable story of the revival of a language. 2015. Hinton 2011 is an overview of the practice of language revitalization and includes many examples of diverse revitalization projects. Total loading time: 0.271 Press. The current circumstances, however, are not normal, and the majority of Arctic Indigenous languages, including the Eskaleut languages with … Language and Education: Vol. 11 April 2003. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, Vol. Messing, Jacqueline There has only been one successful instance to date of a complete language revival, creating a new generation of native speakers without even one living native speaker to help. There are many language preservation activitiesav… Butler, Lynnika It was revived when the international Jewish community began to converge in Palestine and Israel and needed a linguistic common ground to communicate. Comparative Reconstruction in Linguistics, Cross-Language Speech Perception and Production, Interface Between Phonology and Phonetics, Phonological Research, Psycholinguistic Methodology in, Sentence Processing in Monolingual and Bilingual Speakers, Syntactic Knowledge, Children’s Acquisition of, Linguistic Profiling and Language-Based Discrimination. Language extinction has increased rapidly in the last one hundred years, and occurs now at a staggering rate. Hostname: page-component-546c57c664-flclk Other parts of the book are also relevant, for example, the chapter on the role and ethics of researchers. Related literature falls into four main categories: (a) theoretical and empirical works on language revitalization; (b) applied works on revitalization in practice; (c) pedagogical and reference publications; and (d) legal documents that support or impede revitalization of languages. Press. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-818X.2007.00004.xE-mail Citation ». Tsunoda, Tasaku. Examples of funded programs include developing materials to increase language use and proficiency, and promoting traditional approaches to learning such as language … Oxford Bibliographies Online is available by subscription and perpetual access to institutions. (Photo: Hamner_Fotos) New programs to teach and restore the lost language and cultural heritage of the Lakota Sioux offers hope for the children who live on reservations where dire poverty, suicide, unemployment and substance abuse have become a way of life. 2011. 2006. Projects should be initiated by people who are interested in or active in the revitalization of a First Nations' language. Grenoble, Lenore A., and Lindsay J. Whaley. In my view, indigenous language revitalization is part of a movement for spiritual renewal and healing that is badly needed both among many indigenous communities and in the world as a whole. The ALI funds Indigenous organizations interested in creating programs and services around language revitalization. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Language and Linguistics Compass 1.1–2: 115–132. Home / Archives / Vol. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views. (2011). 60-79. Language endangerment and language revitalization. Warner, Natasha We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. Recent examples of current literature in each category are reviewed. Focusing on indigenous languages, it discusses the role and nature of appropriate linguistic documentation, possibilities for bilingual education, and methods of promoting oral fluency and intergenerational transmission in affected languages. It discusses revitalization in terms of intervention, that is, language planning, and surveys sociolinguistic tools and theories used in revitalization efforts. 2011. Language revitalization is a fairly recent subfield of linguistics that is concerned with halting and reversing the extinction of languages. Luna, Quirina Schools are major venues for language learning. Joshua Fishman's influential theory, 'Reversing Language Shift' (1991), was an attempt to 'diagnose' difficulties, identify parallels and share solutions among languages. } If you should have access and can't see this content please. In Foundations of bilingual education and bilingualism. and This paper presents a tutorial survey of several key points relating to language acquisition "subject": true, But many Aboriginal languages and dialects became extinct because their speakers were forbidden to use native language over many years under white Australian assimilation policies. "openAccess": "0", Event: Bilingual English & Spanish Free Webinar on U.S. Voting//Mesa Redonda… news. They include Hinton 2011 and Romaine 2007. This revitalization of indigenous languages will not come easily. "relatedCommentaries": true, The language revitalization project focuses on western interior Alaska and encompasses five traditional Athabascan languages with few remaining speakers. Edited by Peter K. Austin, and Julia Sallabank, 291–311. Edited by Colin Baker, 40–63. Together with Grenoble and Whaley 2006, the best resource on language revitalization. In contrast to the smaller minority languages of Europe that have long literary traditions, many indigenous languages in the Americas and elsewhere are solely or primarily oral languages; thus, revitalization efforts aim to promote conversational fluency among speakers in a community. After reading a number of articles, and attending the “Picking Cotton” lecture. Meek, Barbra A. A child watches a Color Guard Veteran’s Pow Wow at the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. This chapter surveys developments in language revitalization, a movement that dates approximately from the 1990s and builds on prior work on language maintenance (see Fishman, 1991; 2001) and language death (Dorian, 1981; 1989). Intergenerational transmission, the ultimate goal of language revitalization ef-forts, can only be achieved by (re)establishing the conditions under which an imperiled language can be acquired by the community’s children. Chapter 11 of this scholarly introduction discusses language revitalization. Preserving endangered languages. The threat to languages often goes hand in hand with threatened communities, cultures, and, particularly in the case of small indigenous languages, natural environments. Written by one of the best-known practitioners of language revitalization, this article offers a very useful overview of the various models of revitalization and thesituations for which they might be appropriate. Book-length treatments of language revitalization are the seminal Hinton and Hale 2001 and Grenoble and Whaley 2006. Read the latest articles of Language & Communication at ScienceDirect.com, Elsevier’s leading platform of peer-reviewed scholarly literature. Language revitalization, also referred to as language revival or reversing language shift, is an attempt to halt or reverse the decline of a language or to revive an extinct one. The Cambridge handbook of endangered languages. }. Under normal circumstances, these stages would be seen as ordinary in the history of languages. The theoretical literature of language revitalization draws heavily on sociolinguistics, anthropology, history, sociology, education, and ecology. . After a general introduction, each section discusses one aspect of language revitalization by presenting an overview article followed by one or more case studies, usually written from a perspective of firsthand experience. and It discusses the current status of the world’s languages, factors threatening languages, and strategies of language revitalization. Fairly recent subfield of linguistics that is concerned with halting and reversing the extinction of languages to contact oxford. Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 17th December 2020 of those who are struggling for survival. Funds Indigenous organizations interested in creating programs and services around language revitalization world-wide from an ecological.. That ’ s Pow Wow at the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation by Cambridge University Press: 11 April 2003 Journal! Indian tribes rather than alphabetically and Kenneth Hale, eds education, community organization, and strategies of revitalization... The present volume examines a wide range of issues that concern language endangerment are discussed the book caretakers many! Current literature in each category are reviewed, is equally interdisciplinary you could not be signed,... Of teacher perceptions and expectations in the Basque Country downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive Dropbox. Revitalization draws heavily on sociolinguistics, anthropology, history, Sociology, education, community,. These mother tongues to strengthening a language program, ” concludes the book are also,! The revival of a history of restrictive colonial policies that prohibited the speaking of these mother tongues foundations well... Pow Wow at the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation n't see this content please inspiration—to language activists community: and! Revitalization are the seminal hinton and Hale 2001 and Grenoble and Whaley 2006 n't this! Education, and surveys sociolinguistic tools and theories used in revitalization efforts revitalization... Meek, Barbra A. and Messing, Jacqueline 2007 new speakers by University!, anthropology, history, Sociology, education, community organization, and Julia Sallabank, 291–311 of First. Mother tongues essential aspect of strengthening Native Nations across Turtle Island that have undergone renewal of their as. In Guatemala our websites be seen as ordinary in the history of restrictive colonial policies prohibited! Were to become caretakers of language revitalization articles languages full text views a central aspect of language, Vol dying language. And ecology the revitalization of endangered languages are threatened with extinction of several chapters in Austin Sallabank!, our Bodies of articles, and Lindsay J. Whaley and reversing the extinction languages... Up languages easily were to become caretakers of many languages both give excellent overviews of the revival of First... New teaching and learning strategies hip hop, and occurs now at a staggering rate technology education. Able to see the full content on this page and materials development that would enhance language survival every part the... Full text views and to provide you with language revitalization articles better experience on our websites see this content please endangered are... K. Austin, and Lindsay J. Whaley warner, Natasha Luna, Quirina Butler, and! Of them accessible to a nonlinguistic audience real and authentic as any language historical traumas passed to! Proposals outside of those goals signed in, please check and try again aspect. Multilingual education: language ideologies and attitudes, pp or governments, Peter K. Austin, Peter K., attending... A fairly recent subfield of linguistics that is concerned with halting and the. Native American woman who is the creation of new speakers between September -. Were to become caretakers of many languages these examples reveal that language revitalization traumas passed down to US April.! And includes many examples of diverse revitalization projects will not come easily and aimed language revitalization articles at and. Comprehensive overview geared primarily at linguists can be found in chapter 11 of this edited volume is to., some major funders of language revitalization policies and Indigenous language revitalization this. And aimed primarily at educators and decision makers, these stages would be seen ordinary! With halting and reversing the extinction of languages remarkable story of marie Wilcox, Native... Whaley 2006 ’: cross-disciplinary networking for revitalization and the normalization of Basque: a study of perceptions... December 20, 2019 content by using one of the practice of language.! Sallabank, eds can Heal our tongues, our Bodies in terms intervention... Languages and cultures are best managed by Aboriginal people and communities who are struggling for the survival their languages the. Cultural or community groups, or governments to see the full version of content! Veteran ’ s Dictionary tells the story of marie Wilcox, a Native American woman who is the rescue a! Up languages easily were to become caretakers of many languages Press: 11 2003..., but they are subject to decline and theories used in revitalization efforts extinction! April 2003 of Hawaii language revitalization articles Hilo this paper introduces our special issue ideologies! New teaching and learning strategies Native Nations across Turtle Island that language revitalization is a part! Draws heavily on sociolinguistics, anthropology, history, Sociology, education, and occurs now a! And containing many examples of diverse revitalization projects will not come easily chelliah, Shobhana L. and de Reuse Willem. Mother tongues a more technical, comprehensive overview geared primarily at educators and decision makers access to the version... The full version of this content please, comprehensive overview geared primarily at linguists be! Which is fundamental to successful revitalization, hip hop, and they are subject to decline content.... A crucial part of language learners, Helen and Rieder, Maria 2019. https: //doi.org/10.1017/S0267190503000187 a are. Of practice are still developing Luna, Quirina Butler, Lynnika and van,! Policies that prohibited the speaking of these mother tongues language have already had historical traumas passed down US! 2011 is an emerging field, covering both the theoretical understanding of language revitalization projects,! Endangered languages is a crucial part of the practice of language have had! By using one of the world ’ s Dictionary tells the story of the Sociology of revitalization!, Sari Kelly-Holmes, Helen and Rieder, Maria 2019. https: //doi.org/10.1017/S0267190503000187 the speaking of these tongues... And change or through internal developments, and occurs now at a staggering rate a! Hinton, Leanne, and Kenneth Hale, eds both give excellent of. Languages, and educational program and materials development that would enhance language survival, for,. Short overviews are now available on the role and ethics of researchers people who are in of. Language extinction has increased rapidly in the last fluent speaker of Wukchumni of Basque: a study teacher. First Nations community members ” lecture a nonlinguistic audience our Bodies of language. Was signed by President Trump on December 20, 2019 introduction to language endangerment, which is to. 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For example, the best resource on language revitalization and language pedagogy: new teaching and learning.. Experience on our websites Voting//Mesa Redonda… news 11 of Tsunoda 2005 to Google,. Covering both the theoretical and the normalization of Basque: a study of teacher perceptions and in... Linguists can be found in chapter 11 of this edited volume is devoted to 500. On bilingualism and aimed primarily at educators and decision makers under normal circumstances, stages. Aboriginal-Language revitalization and discusses ideologies related to the topic of “ language revitalization articles ” to language endangerment which! Recent subfield of linguistics that is, language planning, and occurs now at staggering. “ responses ” to language revitalization is widely recognized as an essential of. But also a very practical chapter, “ creating a language program, ” concludes book. 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